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Mechanisms of induction of chromosomal aberrations by hydroquinone in V79 cells

By Céu Silva M, Gaspar J, Duarte Silva I, Leão D, Ruef J

Hydroquinone occurs naturally in bacteria and plants and it is also manufactured for commercial use. Human exposure to this compound can occur by environmental, occupational, dietary and cigarette smoke exposure and from exposure to benzene, which can be metabolized to this compound. However, the main source of exposure to this compound is dietary, since hydroquinone is a naturally occurring compound in many foods.Hydroquinone can be metabolized to benzoquinones, which are potent haematotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds that can also induce the formation of radical species, predisposing cells to oxidative damage. In order to clarify the involvement of radical species in the genotoxicity of hydroquinone, the induction of chromosomal aberrations in V79 cells was studied along with the assessment of the production of hydroxyl radicals at different pH values (6.0, 7.4 and 8.0), as well as the effect of antioxidant enzymes [catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] on the clastogenic effect of hydroquinone. The results obtained indicate that the clastogenic activity of hydroquinone is dependent on the pH, suggesting that deprotonation is a fundamental step leading to DNA lesions under the experimental conditions used. The addition of S9 mix, SOD or SOD and catalase signi®cantly decreased the clastogenic activity, suggesting the involvement of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the genotoxicity of hydroquinone. However, other species generated in the auto-oxidation process of hydroquinone, such as the semiquinone radical or the quinone, also seem to play a role in its genotoxicity, since the addition of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and SOD) or S9 mix do not lead to a complete abolition of the observed genotoxic activity. These results suggest the existence of at least two mechanisms associated with the genotoxic activity of this compound.

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Retrospective analysis of clinical yeast isolates in a hospital in the centre of Portugal: spectrum and revision of the identification procedures

By Paulo C, Mourão C, Veiga P, Marques J, Rocha G, Alves A, Querol A, Meliço-Silvestre A, Gonçalves A, Flores O, Clemente C, Gonçalves T

We conducted a four-year (2003-2006) retrospective study of yeasts recovered in a hospital laboratory in the centre of Portugal to evaluate the epidemiology of yeast infections. Clinical isolates and data were gathered from 751 patients corresponding to 906 episodes of yeast infection. The isolates were first identified using classical and commercial methods, routinely employed at the hospital laboratory. We then re-identified the same isolates using RFLP of the ITS 5.8S rRNA gene and sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Candida parapsilosis isolates were re-identified using the Ban I digestion of the SADH gene. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated of the yeasts found in the analysed specimens, with an overall incidence of 69.6% and then in deceasing order, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. C. parapsilosis was most frequently recovered from younger patients, decreasing with age, while C. glabrata occurrence increased with age. We found an increased number of cases of fungemia per 100,000 people per year, reaching a maximum of 4.4 during 2006. Keywords Yeast infections, molecular yeast identification, risk factor, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis.

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Differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans varieties and Cryptococcus gattii using CAP59-based loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification

By Lucas S, Luz Martins M, Flores O, Meyer W, Spencer-Martins I, Inácio J

Members of the Cryptococcus species complex (C. neoformans and C. gattii) are opportunistic pathogens responsible for frequently fatal cases of meningoencephalitis. These yeasts have been classified into five serotypes. Serotypes A andDare assigned to C. neoformans var. grubii and C. neoformans var. neoformans, respectively, Serotype AD strains are hybrids and serotype B and C strains are considered to belong to the related but distinct species C. gattii. Previous studies have identified ‘serotype-associated’ alleles of several genes in the Cryptococcus species complex. We developed a loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification method using CAP59 allele- specific primers to identify the serotypes A, D and B/C of the Cryptococcus species complex.

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Evaluation of low doses BPA-induced perturbation of glycemia by toxicogenomics points to a primary role of pancreatic islets and to the mechanism of toxicity

By Carchia E, Porreca I, Almeida PJ, D'Angelo F, Cuomo D, Ceccarelli M, De Felice M, Mallardo M, Ambrosino C

Epidemiologic and experimental studies have associated changes of blood glucose homeostasis to Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. We took a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mechanisms of low-dose (1 × 10(-9 )M) BPA toxicity in ex vivo cultures of primary murine pancreatic islets and hepatocytes. Twenty-nine inhibited genes were identified in islets and none in exposed hepatocytes. Although their expression was slightly altered, their impaired cellular level, as a whole, resulted in specific phenotypic changes. Damage of mitochondrial function and metabolism, as predicted by bioinformatics analyses, was observed: BPA exposure led to a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, to an increase of ROS cellular levels and, finally, to an induction of apoptosis, attributable to the bigger Bax/Bcl-2 ratio owing to activation of NF-κB pathway. Our data suggest a multifactorial mechanism for BPA toxicity in pancreatic islets with emphasis to mitochondria dysfunction and NF-κB activation. Finally, we assessed in vitro the viability of BPA-treated islets in stressing condition, as exposure to high glucose, evidencing a reduced ability of the exposed islets to respond to further damages. The result was confirmed in vivo evaluating the reduction of glycemia in hyperglycemic mice transplanted with control and BPA-treated pancreatic islets. The reported findings identify the pancreatic islet as the main target of BPA toxicity in impairing the glycemia. They suggest that the BPA exposure can weaken the response of the pancreatic islets to damages. The last observation could represent a broader concept whose consideration should lead to the development of experimental plans better reproducing the multiple exposure conditions.

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Comparative RNA-seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Virulence Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Strains Isolated from Small Animals

By Couto N, Belas A, Oliveira M, Almeida P, Clemente C, Pomba C

The Staphylococcus intermedius group consists of three closely related coagulase-positive bacterial species including S. intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and Staphylococcus delphini. S. pseudintermedius is a major skin pathogen of dogs, which occasionally causes severe zoonotic infections of humans. S. delphini has been isolated from an array of different animals including horses, mink, and pigeons, whereas S. intermedius has been isolated only from pigeons to date. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the S. pseudintermedius whole genome sequence in comparison to high quality draft S. intermedius and S. delphini genomes, and to other sequenced staphylococcal species. The core genome of the SIG was highly conserved with average nucleotide identity (ANI) between the three species of 93.61%, which is very close to the threshold of species delineation (95% ANI), highlighting the close-relatedness of the SIG species. However, considerable variation was identified in the content of mobile genetic elements, cell wall-associated proteins, and iron and sugar transporters, reflecting the distinct ecological niches inhabited. Of note, S. pseudintermedius ED99 contained a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus of the Nmeni subtype and S. intermedius contained both Nmeni and Mtube subtypes. In contrast to S. intermedius and S. delphini and most other staphylococci examined to date, S. pseudintermedius contained at least nine predicted reverse transcriptase Group II introns. Furthermore, S. pseudintermedius ED99 encoded several transposons which were largely responsible for its multi-resistant phenotype. Overall, the study highlights extensive differences in accessory genome content between closely related staphylococcal species inhabiting distinct host niches, providing new avenues for research into pathogenesis and bacterial host-adaptation.

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Single nucleotide polymorphism detection using gold nanoprobes and bio-microfluidic platform with embedded microlenses

By Bernacka-Wojcik I, Águas H, Carlos FF, Lopes P, Wojcik PJ, Costa MN, Veigas B, Igreja R, Fortunato E, Baptista PV, Martins R

The use of microfluidics platforms combined with the optimal optical properties of gold nanoparticles has found plenty of application in molecular biosensing. This paper describes a bio-microfluidic platform coupled to a non-cross-linking colorimetric gold nanoprobe assay to detect a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with increased risk of obesity fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9939609 (Carlos et al., 2014). The system enabled significant discrimination between positive and negative assays using a target DNA concentration of 5 ng/µL below the limit of detection of the conventionally used microplate reader (i.e., 15 ng/µL) with 10 times lower solution volume (i.e., 3 µL). A set of optimization of our previously reported bio-microfluidic platform (Bernacka-Wojcik et al., 2013) resulted in a 160% improvement of colorimetric analysis results. Incorporation of planar microlenses increased 6 times signal-to-loss ratio reaching the output optical fiber improving by 34% the colorimetric analysis of gold nanoparticles, while the implementation of an optoelectronic acquisition system yielded increased accuracy and reduced noise. The microfluidic chip was also integrated with a miniature fiber spectrometer to analyze the assays' colorimetric changes and also the LEDs transmission spectra when illuminating through various solutions. Furthermore, by coupling an optical microscope to a digital camera with a long exposure time (30 s), we could visualise the different scatter intensities of gold nanoparticles within channels following salt addition. These intensities correlate well to the expected difference in aggregation between FTO positive (none to small aggregates) and negative samples (large aggregates).

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Next-generation sequencing and comparative analysis of Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax and Pyrrhocorax graculus (Passeriformes: Corvidae) mitochondrial genomes

By Morinha F, Clemente C, Cabral JA, Lewicka MM, Travassos P, Carvalho D, Dávila JA, Santos M, Blanco G, Bastos E

The complete mitochondrial genomes of Red-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) and Yellow-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus) were sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. These mitogenomes contain 16,889 bp (Red-billed Chough) and 16,905 bp (Yellow-billed Chough), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (D-loop). The gene content, orientation, and structure are similar to a wide range of other vertebrate species and the nucleotide composition is very similar to other Passeriformes. All PCGs start with ATG, except for COX1 that starts with GTG, and four stop codons and one incomplete stop codon are used (TAA, TAG, AGG, AGA, and T-). The size of PCGs is the same in both mitogenomes, except for ND6 that has one codon less in the Yellow-billed Chough. All the tRNAs can fold into a typical cloverleaf secondary structure. These mitogenomic data can be of great value in complementing forthcoming approaches on molecular ecology, comparative and functional genomics.

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Genome sequence of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio gigas: a comparative analysis within the Desulfovibrio genus

By Morais-Silva FO, Rezende AM, Pimentel C, Santos CI, Clemente C, Varela–Raposo A, Resende DM, Silva SM, Oliveira LM, Matos M, Costa DA, Flores O, Ruiz JC, Rodrigues-Pousada C

Desulfovibrio gigas is a model organism of sulfate-reducing bacteria of which energy metabolism and stress response have been extensively studied. The complete genomic context of this organism was however, not yet available. The sequencing of the D. gigas genome provides insights into the integrated network of energy conserving complexes and structures present in this bacterium. Comparison with genomes of other Desulfovibrio spp. reveals the presence of two different CRISPR/Cas systems in D. gigas. Phylogenetic analysis using conserved protein sequences (encoded by rpoB and gyrB) indicates two main groups of Desulfovibrio spp, being D. gigas more closely related to D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans strains. Gene duplications were found such as those encoding fumarate reductase, formate dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. Complexes not yet described within Desulfovibrio genus were identified: Mnh complex, a v-type ATP-synthase as well as genes encoding the MinCDE system that could be responsible for the larger size of D. gigas when compared to other members of the genus. A low number of hydrogenases and the absence of the codh/acs and pfl genes, both present in D. vulgaris strains, indicate that intermediate cycling mechanisms may contribute substantially less to the energy gain in D. gigas compared to other Desulfovibrio spp. This might be compensated by the presence of other unique genomic arrangements of complexes such as the Rnf and the Hdr/Flox, or by the presence of NAD(P)H related complexes, like the Nuo, NfnAB or Mnh.

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Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) biosensing using gold nanotriangles: Detection of DNA hybridization events at room-temperature

By Soares L, Csáki A, Jatschka J, Fritzsche W, Flores O, Franco R, Pereira E

We present a proof-of-concept of the application of gold nanotriangles in sequence specific DNA detection, using localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy and dark-field optical microscopy. The sensing platform comprises gold nanotriangles immobilized on a glass chip and oligonucleotides as probes. Probe formation and testing complementary and non-complementary targets followed common chip technology protocols. Gold nanotriangles showed a remarkable sensitivity of 468 nm per RIU and allowed detection of 20-mer targets. When the target sequence was part of a 50-mer synthetic DNA oligonucleotide, LSPR shifts as high as 35 nm were observed. Conversely, when the target was present in PCR products of ca. 350 bp, obtained from clinical samples, LSPR shifts larger than 20 nm were observed. Moreover, LSPR shifts were less than ±1 nm for the respective non-complementary targets. These results with gold nanotriangles as sensors are a notable improvement to the LSPR shifts of less than 5 nm usually obtained for spherical gold nanoparticles of comparable sizes. Optimal conditions for the detection of synthetic and PCR product targets using gold nanotriangles and oligonucleotide probes were achieved with low percentages of intercalating thioalkanes; target hybridization at room temperature, 3 hours of incubation, and 2× SSC buffer stringency conditions.

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Characterization of genomic SNP via colorimetric detection using a single gold nanoprobe

By Carlos FF, Flores O, Doria G, Baptista PV

Identification of specific nucleic acid sequences mediated by gold nanoparticles derivatized thiol-modified oligonucleotides (Au-nanoprobes) has been proven to be a useful tool in molecular diagnostics. Here, we demonstrate that, on optimization, detection may be simplified via the use of a single Au-nanoprobe to detect a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in homo- or heterozygote condition. We validated this non-cross-linking approach through the analysis of 20 clinical samples using a single specific Au-nanoprobe for an SNP in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) gene against direct DNA sequencing. Sensitivity, specificity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined, and statistical differences were calculated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post hoc Tukey's test to ascertain whether there were any differences between Au-nanoprobe genotyped groups. For the first time, we show that the use of a single Au-nanoprobe can detect SNP for each genetic status (wild type, heterozygous, or mutant) with high degrees of sensitivity (87.50%) and specificity (91.67%).

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Ancient Substructure in Early mtDNA Lineages of Southern Africa

By Barbieri C, Vicente M, Rocha J, Mpoloka SW, Stoneking M, Pakendorf B

Among the deepest-rooting clades in the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny are the haplogroups defined as L0d and L0k, which are found primarily in southern Africa. These lineages are typically present at high frequency in the so-called Khoisan populations of hunter-gatherers and herders who speak non-Bantu languages, and the early divergence of these lineages led to the hypothesis of ancient genetic substructure in Africa. Here we update the phylogeny of the basal haplogroups L0d and L0k with 500 full mtDNA genome sequences from 45 southern African Khoisan and Bantu-speaking populations. We find previously unreported subhaplogroups and greatly extend the amount of variation and time-depth of most of the known subhaplogroups. Our major finding is the definition of two ancient sublineages of L0k (L0k1b and L0k2) that are present almost exclusively in Bantu-speaking populations from Zambia; the presence of such relic haplogroups in Bantu speakers is most probably due to contact with ancestral pre-Bantu populations that harbored different lineages than those found in extant Khoisan. We suggest that although these populations went extinct after the immigration of the Bantu-speaking populations, some traces of their haplogroup composition survived through incorporation into the gene pool of the immigrants. Our findings thus provide evidence for deep genetic substructure in southern Africa prior to the Bantu expansion that is not represented in extant Khoisan populations.

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Association of FTO and PPARG polymorphisms with obesity in Portuguese women

By Carlos FF, Silva-Nunes J, Flores O, Brito M, Doria G, Veiga L, Baptista PV

EXWe evaluated the association between risk of obesity in the Portuguese population and two obesity-related single-nucleotide gene polymorphisms: fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9939609 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) rs1801282. For the first time, a study involving an adult Portuguese population shows that individuals harboring both risk alleles in the FTO gene locus are at higher risk for obesity, which is in agreement to what has been reported for other European populations.

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Versatile and efficient targeting using a single nanoparticulate platform: application to cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

By Le Droumaguet B, Nicolas J, Brambilla D, Mura S, Maksimenko A, De Kimpe L, Salvati E, Zona C, Airoldi C, Canovi M, Gobbi M, Magali N, La Ferla B, Nicotra F, Scheper W, Flores O, Masserini M, Andrieux K, Couvreur P

A versatile and efficient functionalization strategy for polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) has been reported and successfully applied to PEGylated, biodegradable poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) (PACA) nanocarriers. The relevance of this platform was demonstrated in both the fields of cancer and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prepared by copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and subsequent self-assembly in aqueous solution of amphiphilic copolymers, the resulting functionalized polymeric NPs exhibited requisite characteristics for drug delivery purposes: (i) a biodegradable core made of poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate), (ii) a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) outer shell leading to colloidal stabilization, (iii) fluorescent properties provided by the covalent linkage of a rhodamine B-based dye to the polymer backbone, and (iv) surface functionalization with biologically active ligands that enabled specific targeting. The construction method is very versatile and was illustrated by the coupling of a small library of ligands (e.g., biotin, curcumin derivatives, and antibody), resulting in high affinity toward (i) murine lung carcinoma (M109) and human breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines, even in a coculture environment with healthy cells and (ii) the β-amyloid peptide 1–42 (Aβ1–42), believed to be the most representative and toxic species in AD, both under its monomeric and fibrillar forms. In the case of AD, the ligand-functionalized NPs exhibited higher affinity toward Aβ1–42 species comparatively to other kinds of colloidal systems and led to significant aggregation inhibition and toxicity rescue of Aβ1–42 at low molar ratios.

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Anti-Aβ-MAb and dually decorated nanoliposomes: effect of Aβ1-42 peptides on interaction with hCMEC/D3 cells

By Markoutsa E, Papadia K, Clemente C, Flores O, Antimisiaris SG

Anti-Aβ-MAb (Aβ-MAb)-decorated immunoliposomes (LIP) and dually decorated ones (dd-LIP) with OX-26 and Aβ-MAb were constructed. In both cases, the biotin-streptavidin ligation method was applied. All LIP types were characterized for size distribution, zeta potential, and integrity during incubation with serum proteins. Uptake and transcytosis of both LIP types and control vesicles by human brain endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells were measured. All LIP types had mean diameters below 150-200 nm and low polydispersity. Aβ-MAb-LIP uptake was higher than control PEGylated liposomes, while uptake of dd-LIP was similar to that of OX-26-LIP. Aβ-MAb-LIP and dd-LIP uptake increased significantly when cells were pre-incubated with Aβ1-42 peptides; OX-26-LIP uptake was not modulated. Transcytosis of Aβ-MAb-LIP through monolayers was 2.5 times higher when monolayers were pre-incubated with Aβ1-42. Transport of both probes, FITC-dextran and rhodamine-lipid, was equivalent, indicating that Aβ-MAb-LIP are transferred intact through the BBB model. The Aβ peptide-induced increase in binding (and transport) is regulated by the membrane receptors for Aβ1-42 peptides (RAGE), as proven after blocking RAGE by a specific MAb. Aβ1-42 peptides did not modulate the barrier tightness and integrity, as determined by transendothelial resistance and Lucifer Yellow permeability. Additionally, hCMEC/D3 cell viability was not affected by Aβ peptides or by Aβ-MAb-LIP.

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The binding affinity of anti-Ab1-42 MAb-decorated nanoliposomes to Ab1-42 peptides in vitro and to amyloid deposits in post-mortem tissue

By Canovi M, Markoutsa E, Lazar AN, Pampalakis G, Clemente C, Re F, Sesana S, Masserini M, Salmona M, Duyckaerts C, Flores O, Gobbi M, Antimisiaris SG

Amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates are considered as possible targets for therapy and/or diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), and nanoparticles functionalized with Aβ-specific ligands are considered promising vehicles for imaging probes and therapeutic agents. Herein, we characterized the binding properties of nanoliposomes decorated with an anti-Aβ monoclonal antibody (Aβ-MAb). The Aβ-MAb was obtained in mice by immunization with Aβ antigen followed by hybridoma fusion. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) studies confirmed the very high affinity of purified Aβ-MAb for both Aβ monomers and fibrils (K(D) = 0.08 and 0.13 nm, respectively). The affinity of the biotinylated Aβ-MAb, used thereafter for liposome decoration, was lower although still in the low nanomolar range (K(D) = 2.1 and 1.6 nm, respectively). Biotin-streptavidin ligation method was used to decorate nanoliposomes with Aβ-MAb, at different densities. IgG-decorated liposomes were generated by the same methodology, as control. Vesicles were monodisperse with mean diameters 124-134 nm and demonstrated good colloidal stability and integrity when incubated with serum proteins. When studied by SPR, Aβ-MAb-liposomes, but not IgG-liposomes, markedly bound to Aβ monomers and fibrils, immobilized on the chip. K(D) values (calculated on Aβ-MAb content) were about 0.5 and 2 nm with liposomes at high and low Aβ-MAb density, respectively. Aβ-MAb-liposome binding to Aβ fibrils was additionally confirmed by ultracentrifugation technique, in which interactions occur in solution under physiological conditions. Moreover, Aβ-MAb-liposomes bound amyloid deposits in post-mortem AD brain samples, confirming the potential of these nanoparticles for the diagnosis and therapy of AD.

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Efficient Identification of Clinically Relevant Candida Yeast Species by Use of an Assay Combining Panfungal Loop-Mediated Isothermal DNA Amplification with Hybridization to Species-Specific Oligonucleotide Probes

By Inácio J, Flores O, Spencer-Martins I

The occurrence of invasive mycoses has progressively increased in recent years. Yeasts of the genus Candida remain the leading etiologic agents of those infections. Early identification of opportunistic yeasts may contribute significantly to improved disease management and the selection of appropriate antifungal therapy. We developed a rapid and reliable molecular identification system for clinically relevant yeasts that makes use of nonspecific primers to amplify a region of the 26S rRNA gene, followed by reverse hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled products to a panel of species-specific oligonucleotide probes arranged on a nylon membrane macroarray format. DNA amplification was achieved by the recently developed loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification technology, a promising option for the development of improved laboratory diagnostic kits. The newly developed method was successful in distinguishing among the major clinically relevant yeasts associated with bloodstream infections by using simple, rapid, and cost-effective procedures and equipment.

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Compatible solutes from hyperthermophiles improve the quality of DNA microarrays

By Mascellani N, Liu X, Rossi S, Marchesini J, Valentini D, Arcelli D, Taccioli C, Citterich HM, Liu CG, Evangelisti R, Russo G, Santos JM, Croce CM, Volinia S

DNA microarrays are among the most widely used technical platforms for DNA and RNA studies, and issues related to microarrays sensitivity and specificity are therefore of general importance in life sciences. Compatible solutes are derived from hyperthermophilic microorganisms and allow such microorganisms to survive in environmental and stressful conditions. Compatible solutes show stabilization effects towards biological macromolecules, including DNA. Low concentration (10 to 25 mM) of hydroxyectoine, potassium mannosylglycerate and potassium diglycerol phosphate in hybridization buffer positively affected hybridization parameters and enhanced microarrays outcome. This finding harbours a strong potential for the improvement of DNA microarray experiments.

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A novel heterozygous missense mutation in the UMOD gene responsible for Familial Juvenile Hyperuricemic Nephropathy

By Calado J, Gaspar A, Clemente C, Rueff J

Familial Juvenile Hyperuricemic Nephropathy is an autosomal dominant nephropathy, characterized by decreased urate excretion and progressive interstitial nephritis. Mutations in the uromodulin coding UMOD gene have been found responsible for the disease in some families. We here describe a novel heterozygous p.K307T mutation in an affected female with hyperuricemia, renal cysts and renal failure. The proband's only son is also affected and the mutation was found to segregate with the disease. This mutation is the fourth reported in exon 5. Initial studies identified a mutation clustering in exon 4 and it has been recommended that sequencing this exon alone should be the first diagnostic test in patients with chronic interstitial nephritis with gout or hyperuricemia. However, regarding the increasing number of mutations being reported in exon 5, we now suggest that sequencing exon 5 should also be performed.

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Novel compound heterozygous mutations in SLC5A2 are responsible for autosomal recessive renal glucosuria

By Calado J, Soto K, Clemente C, Correia P, Rueff J

Familial renal glucosuria is an inherited renal tubular disorder. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the SLC5A2 gene, encoding the sodium/glucose co-transporter SGLT2, has recently been identified in an affected child of consanguineous parents. We now report novel compound heterozygous mutations in the son of non-consanguineous parents. One allele has a p.Q167fsX186 mutation, which is expected to produce a truncated protein, and the other a p.N654S mutation involving a highly conserved residue. These findings confirm that mutations in the SLC5A2 gene are responsible for recessive renal glucosuria.

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Phosphotransferase-mediated transport of the osmolyte 2-O-alpha-mannosyl-D-glycerate in Escherichia coli occurs by the product of the mngA (hrsA) gene and is regulated by the mngR (farR) gene product acting as repressor

By Sampaio MM, Chevance F, Dippel R, Eppler T, Schlegel A, Boos W, Lu YJ, Rock CO

2-O-alpha-mannosyl-D-glycerate (MGs) has been recognized as an osmolyte in hyperthermophilic but not mesophilic prokaryotes. We report that MG is taken up and utilized as sole carbon source by Escherichia coli K12, strainMC4100. Uptake is mediated by the P-enolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system with the MG-inducible HrsA (now called MngA) protein as its specific EIIABC complex. The apparent Km of MG uptake in induced cells was 10 microm, and the Vmax was 0.65 nmol/min/10(9) cells. Inverted membrane vesicles harboring plasmid-encoded MngA phosphorylated MG in a P-enolpyruvate-dependent manner. A deletion mutant in mngA was devoid of MG transport but is complemented by a plasmid harboring mngA. Uptake of MG in MC4100 also caused induction of a regulon specifying the uptake and the metabolism of galactarate and glucarate controlled by the CdaR activator. The ybgG gene (now called mngB) the gene immediately downstream of mngA encodes a protein with alpha-mannosidase activity. farR, the gene upstream of mngA (now called mngR) had previously been characterized as a fatty acyl-responsive regulator; however, deletion of mngR resulted in the up-regulation of only two genes, mngA and mngB. The mngR deletion caused constitutive MG transport that became MG-inducible after transformation with plasmid expressed mngR. Thus, MngR is the regulator (repressor) of the MG transport/metabolism system. Thus, the mngR mngA mngB gene cluster encodes an MG utilizing system.

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